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Extra resources for Deploying renewables : principles for effective policies
39 © OECD/IEA, 2008 Between 1990 and 2005, the demand for commercial heat from renewable energy sources worldwide almost doubled (Table 2, page 43), mainly supplied from the combustion of biomass. Also direct use of geothermal heat and solar thermal heating, mainly of water, almost doubled over this period. Deploying Renewables: RET Market Trends in OECD Countries and BRICS Figure 5. Commercial renewable heat market trends for the three leading producers among OECD countries and BRICS, 1990-2005 CHN 160 000 RUS 140 000 SWE TJ 120 000 100 000 80 000 60 000 40 000 20 000 0 1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Source: IEA (2007a).
33 © OECD/IEA, 2008 As for BRICS, the RES-E production has increased significantly in China, India and Brazil, but has decreased in terms of total electricity generation shares (Figure 4). For instance, RES-E tripled in China over the period 1990-2005, but its share in total electricity generation decreased from 20% in 1990 to 16% in 2005. In Russia, RES-E has remained fairly constant, apart from the fluctuations due to the dominance of hydropower, while in South Africa it still at very low level compared to the other BRICS.
40 © OECD/IEA, 2008 Several OECD-EU member countries, other than Sweden, have had sucessful market increases in renewable energy heating, particularly countries with severe winter temperatures, including Austria (with renewables providing around 25% of total heat demand in 2005), Denmark (31%) and Finland (21%) (Figure 7). Germany has also seen an increasing trend since 2003, as a result of supportive policies, but the share of total heat demand from renewables remained below 3%. Chapter 1: RET Market Trends in OECD Countries and BRICS Figure 6.
Deploying renewables : principles for effective policies by OECD