By Lev Dorman
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Additional info for Cosmic ray interactions, propagation, and acceleration in space plasmas
0 in atomic hydrogen, ⎪ 1 ⎛ dE ⎞ = −10−6 N e × ⎨ ⎜ ⎟ E ⎝ dt ⎠ brems ⎪ 2 in plasma. 8) Since the bremsstrahlung γ–quanta’s energy is of the order of the electron energy, the continuous low-portion energy loss is substituted by discrete loss of electrons; it may be assumed in this case that the probability P(s) for an electron to traverse a path s (in g/cm2) is, according to Eq. 8: 26 CHAPTER 1 ⎧exp(− s 62 ) in atomic hydrogen, ⎪ P (s ) = ⎨ ⎪exp(− s 52 ) in 90% H + 10% He mixture. 6. 1. 7 °K (with very high density about 200 cm−3 in galactic and intergalactic space), and the infrared and light quanta of radiation from stars.
6 is determined by the solar wind velocity, the size and geometry of the modulation region, whilst the particle velocities for CR particles are interrelated as ( ve = R −1 R 2 + m 2p c 4 vp ) 12 , ( ) 12 2⎞ ve ⎛ = R −1 ⎜ R 2 + Am p c 2 Z ⎟ vZ ⎠ ⎝ . 7) Using the results of determination of the interstellar electron spectrum Deo on the basis of the data on the nonthermal galactic radio emission, the interstellar spectra of protons and nuclei Z may be determined from Eq. 8) 14 CHAPTER 1 where ve v p and ve vZ are determined by the Eq.
According to Gorchakov et al. (1975). 16 CHAPTER 1 Some qualitative difference in Λ between Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 is because Λ in the first case is the effective value for galactic CR averaged over the entire modulation region, whereas Λ for solar CR reflects the local conditions in a nearSun region of size of only several AU. 12. The features of the solar modulation of the CR spectrum and the measurements of the radial gradient The numerous measurements of the radial CR gradient have given values several times smaller than those predicted by the modulation theory in terms of the spherically symmetrical model.
Cosmic ray interactions, propagation, and acceleration in space plasmas by Lev Dorman