By Gordon S. Kino, Timothy R. Corle
This publication presents a accomplished advent to the sector of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers. The ebook concentrates in most cases on tools: the Confocal Scanning Optical Microscope (CSOM), and the Optical Interference Microscope (OIM). A accomplished dialogue of the idea and layout of the Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) is additionally given. The textual content discusses the sensible points of creating a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the purposes of those microscopes to part imaging, organic imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A complete theoretical dialogue of the intensity and transverse answer is given with emphasis put on the sensible result of the theoretical calculations and the way those can be utilized to assist comprehend the operation of those microscopes. Key gains * offers a accomplished creation to the sector of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineers * Explains many sensible purposes of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such different fields as biology and semiconductor metrology * Discusses in theoretical phrases the starting place of the enhanced intensity and transverse answer of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis at the useful result of the theoretical calculations * Considers the sensible elements of establishing a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores the various layout tradeoffs made for microscopes utilized in a number of functions * Discusses the speculation and layout of near-field optical microscopes * Explains section imaging within the scanning optical and interference microscopes
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A fixed or rotating analyzer is then used in front of the eyepiece to block light with the original polarization. Phase Contrast Imaging The techniques described above rely on intensity changes caused by a change in transmission, reflectivity, fluorescence, or scattering to form an image. An alternative method is to image the phase rather than the amplitude of the transmitted or reflected light. 17 A simplified schematic of a Zernike phase microscope is shown in Fig. 18. ~8 In Zernike phase contrast microscopy the object is illuminated by an annular source, and a phase plate is positioned in the back focal plane of the objective lens.
Speckle occurs because coherent light, reflected from different points of an optically rough surface (rough on the scale of the wavelength of light), adds in or out of phase at the detector. These individual bright speckles are formed in regions where the amplitudes add and have dimensions of the order of the focal spot size dr(3 dB). The speckly appearance of an image formed with laser illumination is unfamiliar and unpleasant, since we are used to viewing images in incoherent light. The actual amplitude and appearance of the speckles depend on how the sidelobe amplitudes from the randomly located reflectors add.
Because the PSF of the CSOM falls off more rapidly than that of the standard microscope, its edge response is also sharper. As expected, the 50% intensity point for the standard microscope corresponds to the 25% intensity point in a CSOM. The formula for the edge response is given in Chapter 3. Transfer Function The amplitude response Ac(r)= hZ(r) of the CSOM dictates the nature of the image. Since this amplitude response is identical to the intensity response of a standard microscope; it follows that the CTF of the CSOM is identical to the OTF of the standard microscope; that is, it has the same triangular shape as shown in Fig.
Confocal scanning optical microscopy and related imaging systems by Gordon S. Kino, Timothy R. Corle