By Bruce Masters
Masters explores the heritage of Christians and Jews within the Ottoman Empire and the way their identities developed over 400 years. whereas early groups lived in the hierarchy of Muslim legislations, the 19th century witnessed radical switch. in accordance with Western impacts, clash erupted among Muslims and Christians around the empire. This marked the start of tensions that knowledgeable the rhetoric of non secular fundamentalism within the empire's successor states through the 20th century. therefore Masters negotiates the current in the course of the prior, contributing to our figuring out of the modern Muslim international.
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Additional info for Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World: The Roots of Sectarianism
As the culturalists expect, the Islamist mobilization in Turkey shows that movement entrepreneurs played an active role in the movement’s mobilization by creating new political opportunities. Yet, as the PPM predicts, movement activists were also constrained by the existing political opportunities and developed strategies according to those constraints, resorting to successful framing efforts and availing themselves of the movement’s strong organizational networks. When the POS narrows down, movement entrepreneurs’ successful framing efforts and the movement’s strong organizational networks play a crucial role for the movement’s mobilization.
Whereas the degree of openness or closure of formal political access by challengers is determined by whether a state is strong or weak, successful social movement mobilization is contingent on the availability of elite allies. In the Turkish case, the Islamist movement not only enjoyed informal access to the state, but also experienced weak repression as a result of the availability of the secular military’s serving as an inadvertent elite ally. ”87 Tarrow finds the cross-national statist paradigm useful in linking “the political opportunities of social movements to a national grid of institutional regularities” – and, hence, in analyzing the relationship between POS and social movement mobilization.
47 The term political opportunity structure was first introduced by Peter Eisinger to explain variations in “riot behavior” in American cities. ”50 Several social movement 45 Kriesi, “Political Opportunity Structure of New Social Movements,” 168. 46 William A. Gamson and David S. Meyer, “Framing Political Opportunity,” in McAdam, McCarthy, and Zald, Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements, 275. 47 Meyer and Minkoff, “Conceptualizing Political Opportunity,” 1458. 48 Peter K. Eisinger, “The Conditions of Protest Behavior in American Cities,” American Political Science Review 67, no.
Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Arab World: The Roots of Sectarianism by Bruce Masters