By Dietland Muller-Schwarze
Focusing completely at the chemically mediated interactions among vertebrates, together with people and different animals and crops, this monograph combines info from extensively scattered technical literature in several disciplines. will probably be an imperative reference for undergraduates, graduate scholars and researchers drawn to how chemical indications are used for inter- and intra-specific verbal exchange in vertebrates.
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Additional resources for Chemical Ecology of Vertebrates
Visual anomalies in the environment, such as those created by thrashing, pawing, or tearing of bark, render olfactory marks more detectable (Roberts and Gosling, 2001). Finally, the height of marks on tree trunks, saplings, or rocks may signal the size of the marking animal. 35 3 Odor production and release The odour emitted must be of considerable importance to the male, inasmuch as large and complex glands, furnished with muscles for everting the sack, and for closing or opening the oriﬁce, have in some cases been developed.
Interspeciﬁc chemical cues are also often mixtures. Mixtures of amino acids serve as feeding stimulants in ﬁsh. Among mammals, ferrets respond more to mixtures than to pure odors in their foraging responses. The mixtures are thought to contain more information (Apfelbach, 1973). In some cases, animals do not seem to identify components of complex environmental chemical cues. The pool frog (Rana lessonae) provides an example. After being exposed to a mixture of morpholine and β-phenylethanol during development before metamorphosis, the froglets prefer the mixture but are not attracted to either of the two compounds (Ogurtsov and Bastakov, 2001).
3 Keeper substances Mammalian secretions typically have large amounts of non-volatile compounds, while the actual chemosignals may represent a rather small part of the total weight. Squalene is one of the more common lipids in glandular secretions such as sebum. Squalene and sebum retard evaporation of volatiles. In laboratory experiments, the volatility of phenylacetic acid, a pheromone compound from the ventral gland of the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, was affected by “keeper substances”: being a polar compound, phenylacetic acid is the less volatile the more polar the keeper substance is.
Chemical Ecology of Vertebrates by Dietland Muller-Schwarze