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Additional resources for Biochar for environmental management: science and technology
The pres- ence of biochar will, by affecting these physical characteristics, directly affect the soil’s response to water, its aggregation, workability during soil preparation, swelling– shrinking dynamics and permeability, as well as its capacity to retain cations and its response to ambient temperature changes. In addition, indirectly, many chemical and biological aspects of soil fertility can be inferred from physical properties, such as the physical presentation of sites for chemical reactions and the provision of protective habitats for soil microbes (Brady and Weil, 2008).
And Goyal, S. M. (2003) ‘Pathogens and manure management systems: A review’, Environmental Technology, vol 24, pp115–130 Boehm, H. P. V. , Meier, D. and Radlein, D. , Anjom, M. and Hunt, P. G. (2007) ‘Role of thermochemical conversion in livestock waste-to-energy treatments: Obstacles and opportunities’, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol 46, pp8918–8927 Carpenter, S. , Caraco, N. , Correll, D. , Sharpley, A. N. and Smith, V. H. (1998) ‘Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen’, Ecological Applications, vol 8, pp559–568 Cheng, C.
Char’ is a term that is often used interchangeably with charcoal, but is sometimes applied to refer to a material that is charred to a lesser extent than charcoal, typically as a product of fire (Schmidt and Noack, 2000). The term is used in this book to refer to the charred residue of vegetation fires. Both BIOCHAR FOR ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT terms, char and charcoal, are extensively employed in this volume because much of the available information on charred organic matter has been generated in studies on charcoal production for fuel and on char as a result of fires.