By Pelin Ayan Musil (auth.)
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Additional info for Authoritarian Party Structures and Democratic Political Setting in Turkey
42 It is when one of these conditions erodes; the tension rises between the two in a heightened form. 43 In this model, the tension between the party on the ground and the party in public office gets settled in favor of the latter, which moves toward a cartel in order to liberate itself from the party on the ground. The party leaders in cartel parties, who take politics as a profession, deal with the problems of government with technical and professional expertise and find more consistent resources—such as state subventions—for party campaigning.
One can exercise power over others only by satisfying their needs and expectations; one thereby paradoxically submits oneself to their power. 82 Despite Panebianco’s analysis, it is surprising to see that power is treated as something owned by the party elite in authoritarian party structures. There is a need to treat it as a relational phenomenon and pay attention to the internal governance processes between the party leaders and the local activists. 1 Turkey is one of the countries where political leaders have played a paramount influence in shaping the societal, political, and economic evolution of a country in its path to democracy.
2 shows the return of all major party leaders from the pre-1980 era—Demirel, Ecevit, Erbakan, and Türkeş—back to politics in 1987. With the two exceptions of intraparty elections—the Motherland Party (ANAP—Anavatan Partisi) in 1991 and the Democratic Society Party (DTP—Demokratik Toplum Partisi) in 2007—no democratic leadership change was observed in the post-1980 period, either. Even though the case with the ANAP is based on a leadership crisis, it can be considered as an instance for intraparty democracy because there was a certain challenge against the authoritarian trend in the party, which ended successfully.
Authoritarian Party Structures and Democratic Political Setting in Turkey by Pelin Ayan Musil (auth.)