By James G. Speight
There's just one substance recognized to mankind that may reason wars, impact international economies, and make international locations wealthy: petroleum. yet how a lot does the common individual, even the typical engineer, find out about it? This ebook describes the petroleum in easy-to-understand language for either the layperson and engineer alike. From the economics of attempting to find oil and gasoline, getting it out of the floor, into pipelines, into refineries, and, ultimately, into your gasoline tank, this ebook covers the petroleum like no different therapy prior to.
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Additional resources for An Introduction to Petroleum Technology, Economics, and Politics
The term bitumen (also, on occasion, referred to as native asphalt) includes a wide variety of naturally occurring reddish brown to black materials of semisolid, viscous to brittle character that can exist in nature with no mineral impurity or with mineral matter contents that exceed 50% by weight. Bitumen is frequently found filling pores and crevices of sandstone, limestone, or argillaceous sediments, in which case the organic and associated mineral matrix is known as rock asphalt (Abraham, 1945; Hoiberg, 1964).
Various examples are known of vertical migration, and migration upward for some kilometers is considered possible. Nevertheless the converse may also be true, and the in situ theory (juxtaposition of source bed and reservoir rock) advocates that petroleum migrates very little, if at all, and that even the amount of vertical migration is negligible. Once the oil has accumulated in the reservoir rock, gravitational forces are presumed to be dominant, thereby causing the oil, gas, 42 PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY, ECONOMICS, AND POLITICS and water to segregate according to their relative densities in the upper parts of the reservoir (Landes, 1959).
Similarly, there is some water in the pores in the upper gas zone, which has at its base a transition zone from pores occupied largely by gas to pores filled mainly by oil. The cap rock and basement rock, which are generally impermeable (or have a much lower permeability than the reservoir rock to oil and gas), act as a seal to prevent the escape of oil and gas from the reservoir rock. Typical cap and basement rocks are clay and shale, that is, strata in which the pores are much finer than those of reservoir rocks.
An Introduction to Petroleum Technology, Economics, and Politics by James G. Speight