By Anneke Christine Hellenthal.
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Extra resources for A grammar of Sheko
Vowel length is phonemic and the language has a (much-used) syllabic nasal. Sheko has four level tones and borders Benchnon which has five levels of height. Lexical tone of verbs is however restricted to two classes. Furthermore, tone on verb stems varies to reflect modal distinctions. Nouns are marked for definiteness and gender, and indirectly for number, although nouns are basically transnumeral. Definiteness marking expludes plural marking and is always accompanied by a gender marker: -ǹ-s -DEF-M for masculine and <ì>-ǹ
Aklilu (1994b) posits one alveolar (syllabic) nasal, which assimilates in place. However, Aklilu (2003:60) has both m̩ and n̩ as phonemes. It is stated that diachronically the syllabic nasals come from *um and *un respectively (Aklilu 2003:77-78). His data are the following: 65 (77) ashes6 grandfather short7 eat! tomorrow wide bark (of tree) four die green Sheko Nayi ts’eá kn̩ ts’eá kn̩ á kn̩ ákú ʃík’n̩s ʃíkʼ m̩ m̩ bern̩ bearn̩ (h)aʃkn̩shaaʃu órkʼn̩ kubm̩ kubm̩ ʃub ʃubm̩ tʃʼirn̩s̩ tʃʼilu Dizi Proto-Maji ts’yá kn̩ á kn̩ ʃíguz m̩ byaru haaʃuz orkʼú kubm̩ ʃubu tʃʼiluz *ts’eákun *ákun *ʃíkʼuns *um *bearun *haaʃkuns *orkʼún *kubum *ʃubum *tʃʼiluns It is possible that *un and *um are the sources of the present day sounds in nouns.
E. it codes intensity), but hardly any lexical load. (2) dóddo ‘very red’ óʃʃoʃ ‘look intently’ (3) ke̋tta ‘all’ ne̋ʃʃā ‘very firmly’ cf. kéta ‘all’ cf. nèʃā ‘firmly’ A few adverbs (4) have a geminated consonant. Two nouns vary in pronunciation between a single and geminated consonant (5). 4 Series to substantiate phonemic status This section presents data to indicate the phonemic status of the consonants given above. The data is ordered first according to place of articulation, while manner of articulation is kept constant, and secondly according to manner of articulation and airstream mechanism, while place of articulation is kept constant.
A grammar of Sheko by Anneke Christine Hellenthal.