By Laura A. Janda
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Additional info for A geography of case semantics: the Czech dative and the Russian instrumental
Schematicity" identifies the abstract way in which s of a category are united. "Semantic extension" refers to the system positions which individual schemas occupy in the network. In the extensive investigation presented in the analysis I have identified g classification of subtypes of semantic extension: ations in the shape of schemas paradigmatic variation - variation in the portion of the schema which represents the case-marked entity syntagmatic variation - variation in the composition of the event chain (removal of participants, replacement of the verb with a copular construction) II.
In addition to the general meaning (that represented by features), he recognized both a principal meaning (comparable to the prototype of cognitive semantics) and particular meanings (the constellation of various submeanings and their instantiations). He noted that "the particular meanings ... are not a mechanical accumulation, but form rather a regular hierarchy of particular meanings" grouped about the principal meaning. This hierarchy again implies that case has a center-periphery semantic structure, precisely that which cognitive semantics proposes.
An example would be a variation on Figure 3 realized by an intransitive verb, so that the accusative entity is removed from the schema and the verb interacts directly with the dative's sphere of control. The effect is equivalent to the difference between the two English sentences He read a book to me and He read to me. I? The Czech indirect object provides numerous examples of the first kind of extension. Narrowly defined, the indirect object is the recipient of the verb ddt "give (to)" . Synonymy effects the spread of this case usage to clauses with other verbs that indicate the bestowal of possessions, such as koupit "buy (for)", poslat "send (to)".
A geography of case semantics: the Czech dative and the Russian instrumental by Laura A. Janda